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Articles

Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-complex Sentences

 

(A Book By Manik Joshi)

 

"Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-complex Sentences:
English Sentence Forms"

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Sample This:

 

Simple Sentence

A sentence which has one subject and one predicate is called simple sentence. A simple sentence is always an independent clause. A simple sentence expresses a complete thought.

Example:

We attended the class.

[subject – we, predicate – attended the class]

 

 

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (subordinate clauses) joined together by a coordinator. Coordinators might be in the form of coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), or a correlative conjunction (with or without a comma). Sometimes, only semicolons (;) are used to join independent clauses.

 

Compound sentences may have two or more independent clauses –

1. Compound sentence having two independent clauses or simple sentences

Examples:

David joined party, and Henry studied English.

David joined party, but Henry studied English.

David joined party, so Henry studied English.

David joined party, yet Henry studied English.

 

There are two independent clauses in above sentences –

David joined party. [Subject – David, Predicate – joined party]

Henry studied English. [Subject – Henry, Predicate – studied English]

 

Coordinators (‘and, but, so, yet’) have been used to join these clauses.

Thus, there are two independent clauses in a single sentence. [Compound sentence]

 

 

Complex Sentence

A complex sentence contains an independent clause joined by one or more dependent or subordinate clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator. Subordinators might be in the form of subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns.

 

Example:

After he completed his post-graduation, he applied for the job. Or

He applied for the job after he completed his post-graduation.

 

Independent clause – He applied for the job.

Dependent clause – After he completed his post-graduation. [This sentence cannot stand on its own.]

 

 

Compound-Complex Sentence

A mixed sentence or compound-complex sentence is a type of complex sentence in which there is more than one independent clause joined by one or more dependent or subordinate clauses. Thus, a mixed sentence is the combination of compound sentence and subordinate clause. Sometimes, complex sentence is connected with simple sentence. Sometimes, there is more than one complex sentence.

 

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