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Articles

Hypernyms and Hyponyms

 

(A Book By Manik Joshi)

 

"Hypernyms and Hyponyms:
 Vocabulary Building"

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[Series Name: 'English Word Power' | Book No: 14]

 

 

Sample This:

 

What are "Hypernyms and Hyponyms"?

 

HYPERNYM ----

[Hyper- Over; -Onym: Name]

Hypernym is a word that denotes general category.

Hypernym [singular] | Hypernyms [plural]

Examples: game, bird, etc.

Hypernym is also called ‘Generic term’, ‘Super-ordinate’, ‘Super-type’, or ‘Superset’.

 

Derived terms related to ‘Hypernyms’:

Hypernymous

Words that are hypernyms are said to be hypernymous.

Hypernymy

The state of being a hypernym is called hypernymy.

 

HYPONYM ----

[Hypo- Under; -Onym: Name]

Hyponym is a word that denotes particular item from general category.

Hyponym [singular] | Hyponyms [plural]

Examples: football/hockey/cricket, eagle/peacock/sparrow, etc.

Hyponym is also called ‘Subordinate’, ‘Subtype’ or ‘Subset’.

 

Derived terms related to ‘Hyponyms’:

Hyponymous

Words that are hyponyms are said to be hyponymous.

Hyponymy

The state of being a hyponym is called hyponymy.

 

In above examples, ‘game’ is the hypernym (or supertype) of ‘cricket’, ‘football’ and ‘hockey’.

‘Cricket’, ‘football’ and ‘hockey’ are hyponyms (or subtypes) of ‘game’.

 

Similarly, ‘bird’ is the hypernym (or supertype) of ‘eagle’, ‘peacock’ and ‘sparrow’.

‘Eagle’, ‘peacock’ and ‘sparrow’ are hyponyms (or subtypes) of ‘bird’.

 

 

IMPORTANT NOTE 1:

Relationship between hypernym and hyponym is termed as ‘is-a relationship’.

Pattern:

Hyponym + is-a/an + Hypernym

 

Example 1:

Hypernym: game

Hyponym: cricket, football, hockey

 

Cricket is a game.

Football is a game.

Hockey is a game.

 

Example 2:

Hypernym: bird

Hyponym: eagle, peacock, sparrow

 

Eagle is a bird.

Peacock is a bird.

Sparrow is a bird.

 

 

"Hypernyms and Hyponyms" - A

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A1 --

Hypernym -- acid

Hyponyms -- amino acid / ascetic acid / ascorbic acid / boric acid / carbonic acid / citric acid / hydrochloric acid / hydrofluoric acid / lactic acid / nitric acid / nucleic acid / oxalic acid / phosphoric acid / sulfuric (sulphuric) acid

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A2 --

Hypernym -- account

Hyponyms -- budget account / checking account / current account / deposit account / savings account

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A3 --

Hypernym -- affix

Hyponyms -- prefix / suffix

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A4 --

Hypernym -- African

Hyponyms -- Algerian / Congolese / Egyptian / Kenyan / Liberian / Libyan / Moroccan / Senegalese / Sudanese / Ugandan

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A5 --

Hypernym -- algae

Hyponyms -- anabaena / cowstail / cuvie / dabbylocks / featherweed / flans / grapestone / gulf weed / honeyware / laver / liadhaig / murlins / nostoc / pod weed / pompon / oscillatoria / rockweed / seaweed / thong weed / watersilk

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A6 --

Hypernym -- age [a particular period of history

Hyponyms -- bronze age / iron age / new age / stone age

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A7 --

Hypernym -- agent

Hyponyms -- double agent / estate agent / land agent / press agent / secret agent / special agent / travel agent

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A08 --

Hypernym -- alloy

Hyponyms -- amalgam / billon / brass / bronze / iron / magnalium / megallium / nichrome / scandium / solder / steel / stellite

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A09 --

Hypernym -- amphibian

Hyponyms -- frog / salamander / toad

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A10 --

Hypernym -- angle

Hyponyms -- acute angle / adjacent angle / exterior angle / interior angle / obtuse angle / reflex angle / right angle

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A11 --

Hypernym -- animal

Hyponyms -- antelope / bear / boar / buffalo / bull / camel / cat / deer / dog / donkey / elephant / fox / giraffe / goat / goose / horse / hyena / jackal / kangaroo / monkey / mule / panther / wolf / yak / zebra

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A12 --

Hypernym -- appliance

Hyponyms -- baking pan / blender / egg beater / frying pan / grater / griddle / grinder / juicer / nut cracker / oven / pressure cooker / roaster / slicer / stove / toaster

 

******

 

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A13 --

Hypernym -- Asian

Hyponyms -- Bangladeshi / Bhutanese / Indian / Japanese / Jordanian / Kazakh / Malaysian / Maldivian / Mauritian / Mongolian / Nepalese / Omani / Pakistani / Qatari / Saudi Arabian / Singaporean / Syrian / Thai / Yemeni

 

END OF THE SAMPLE

 

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[Series Name: 'English Word Power' | Book No: 14]

 


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