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Dictionary of Combining Forms

 

(A Book By Manik Joshi)

 

"Dictionary of Combining Forms:
Vocabulary Building"

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[Series Name: 'English Word Power' | Book No: 06]

 

 

Sample This:

 

What are “Combining Forms”? 

 

Combining form is a form of a word that can combine with free word, root word or another combining form to get a new word. ‘Combining form’ adds extra meaning to the new word. ‘Combining form’ is added to the beginning or end of free word, root word or another combining form.

 

 

(A). Examples of “Combining form + Free Word”:

 

Agro- + Industry = Agro-industry

Agro- denotes: connected with farming

 

Counter- + argument = Counterargument

Counter- denotes: against; opposite

 

 

(B). Example of “Combining form + Root Word”:

 

Aero- + Gramme = Aerogramme [a light paper sheet that can be folded and sent by air as a letter. It is also called ‘air letter’.]

Aero- denotes: connected with aircraft

Gramme denotes: writing

 

 

(C). Example of “Combining form + Combining form”:

 

Hydro- + -Logy = Hydrology [the scientific study of the earth's water]

Hydro- denotes: relating to water

-Logy denotes: a subject of study

 

 

IMPORTANT NOTES:

 

1. “Combining form” generally cannot stand alone as free words, but there are many exceptions to this rule.

 

EXAMPLE:

Combining Form: -like [free word]

lotus + -like = lotus-like

rope + -like = rope-like

-like- denotes: similar to the thing that is mentioned

 

 

2. Many Words ending in “-ed”, “-en”, etc. are used as COMBINING FORMS.

EXAMPLES:

Combining Form: -based (ending in ‘-ed’)

foreign + -based = foreign-based

demand + -based = demand-based

-based denotes: containing something as an important feature or part

 

 

3. Many words ending in “-ing” are used as COMBINING FORMS.

EXAMPLES:

Combining Form: -looking (ending in ‘-ing’)

fine + -looking = fine-looking

suspicious + -looking = suspicious-looking

-looking- denotes: to be appearing in a way that is mentioned

 

 

Combining Forms -- A

 

AERO-

Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns

General meaning: connected with aircraft

Examples:

aerobatics / aerodrome / aerodynamics / aerofoil / aerogramme (also, aerogram) / aeronaut / aeronautics / aerospace / aerostat

 

******

 

-AFFECTED

Used to form: adjectives

General meaning: suffering from the thing that is mentioned

Examples [along with their use in phrases]:

drug-affected ---- [drug-affected newborns]

famine-affected ---- [famine-affected village]

flu-affected ---- [flu-affected patients]

militancy-affected ---- [militancy-affected state]

quake-affected ---- [quake-affected hills]

 

Other Examples:

flood-affected / cyclone-affected / explosion-affected / drought-affected / rain-affected / violence-affected

 

******

 

AFRO-

Used to form: adjectives and nouns

General meaning: African

Examples [along with their use in phrases]:

Afro-Brazilian ---- [Afro-Brazilian heritage]

Afro-British ---- [Afro-British people]

Afro-Caribbean ---- [Afro-Caribbean cooperation]

Afro-Colombian ---- [Afro-Colombian celebrities]

Afro-Iranian ---- [Afro-Iranian minority]

Afro-Mexican ---- [Afro-Mexican students]

Afro-Palestinian ---- [Afro-Palestinian group]

Afro-Turk ---- [Afro-Turk music star]

 

******

 

AGRO-

Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns

General meaning: connected with farming

Examples:

agrochemical / agro-forestry / agro-industry / agronomist / agronomy

 

******

 

ALL-

Used to form: adjectives and adverbs

General meaning: each and every one | totally | in the highest degree

Examples:

all-American / all-around / all-British / all-Canadian / all-clear / all-consuming / all-embracing / all-encompassing / all-important / all-inclusive / all-night / all-nighter / all-out / all-over / all-party / all-pervading / all-powerful / all-purpose / all-round / all-rounder / all-star / all-ticket / all-time

 

******

 

ANGLO-

Used to form: adjectives and nouns

General meaning: British or English

Examples [along with their use in phrases]:

Anglo-American ---- [Anglo-American leadership]

Anglo-Catholic ---- [Anglo-Catholic person]

Anglo-Dutch ---- [Anglo-Dutch scientist]

Anglo-Indian ---- [Anglo-Indian community]

Anglo-Irish ---- [Anglo-Irish bank]

Anglo-Norman ---- [Anglo-Norman relations]

Anglo-Saxon ---- [Anglo-Saxon culture]

 

******

 

-APPOINTED

Used to form: adjectives

General meaning: chosen

Examples [along with their use in phrases]:

court-appointed ---- [court-appointed panel]

government-appointed ---- [government-appointed agency]

president-appointed ---- [president-appointed board]

 

******

 

ARCH-

Used to form: nouns

General meaning: most important; chief or main

Examples:

archangel / archbishop / archduke / archenemy / archrival / matriarch / matriarchal / monarch / oligarch / patriarch / patriarchal / patriarchate

 

******

 

AUDIO-

Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns

General meaning: connected with hearing or sound

Examples:

audio-book / audio-cassette / audio-lingual / audiology / audio-meter / audio-metric / audiophile / audiotape / audio-typist / audio-visual

 

******

 

AUTO-

Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns

General meaning: by yourself or itself

Examples:

autobiographical / autobiography / autoclave / autocracy / autocrat / autocratic / autocratically / autocross / autodidact / auto-exposure / autofocus / autogenic / autograph / autohypnosis / autoimmune / automate / automatic / automation / automobile / autonomous / autonomy / autopilot / autosave / autotroph / auto-wind

 

END OF THE SAMPLE

 

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[Series Name: 'English Word Power' | Book No: 06]

 


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