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Articles

Direct and Indirect Speech

 

(A Book By Manik Joshi)

 

"Direct and Indirect Speech:
English Speaking"

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[Series Name: 'English Daily Use' | Book No: 21]

 

 

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

 

Direct And Indirect Speech
Dedication
Copyright Notice
01. Direct and Indirect Speech
02. Expression of Time
03. Important Reporting Verbs
04. Pronoun Change
05. Tenses in Direct and Indirect Speech
06. Reporting Verb with Object
07. Changing Modal Verbs
08. ‘Questions’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
09. ‘Exclamations’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
10. ‘Imperatives’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
11. Direct and Indirect Speech: Mixed Types
12. Where to Put Reporting Verb in Direct Speech
13. Punctuation Rules
14. Other Useful Notes
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

 

Sample This:

 

01. Direct and Indirect Speech

 

There are two ways to express what someone else has said. On this basis, sentences are of two types: sentences with Direct Speech, and sentences with Indirect Speech

 

DIRECT SPEECH

Direct Speech is also called Quoted Speech or Direct Narration.

Direct Speech refers exactly what someone has said.

Direct Speech appears within quotation marks (“..”). A comma is used before starting the exact quote within the quotation marks.

Direct Speech should be word for word.

The first letter of the quotation begins with a capital letter.

Example: The president said, “I will not bear corruption in the country at any cost.”

 

INDIRECT SPEECH

Indirect speech is also called Reported Speech or Indirect Narration.

Indirect Speech does not refer exactly what someone has said.

Indirect Speech doesn't appear within quotation marks but the word “that” may be used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech.

Indirect Speech shouldn’t be word for word.

Pronoun in Indirect Speech is changed according to speaker and hearer.

Example: The president declared that he would not bear corruption in the country at any cost.

 

Important rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech are as follows:

 

   

02. Expression of Time

 

You need to change expression of time when changing direct speech (DS) into indirect speech (IDS) to match the moment of speaking. Important expressions of time in direct and indirect speech are as follows:

 

‘a month ago’ is changed into ‘a month before’

‘a year ago’ is changed into ‘the previous year’ or ‘a year before’

‘last night’ is changed into ‘the night before’

‘last Saturday’ is changed into ‘the Saturday before’

‘last weekend’ is changed into ‘the weekend before’

‘next year’ is changed into ‘the following year’ or ‘the year after’

‘now’ is changed into ‘then’

‘the day after tomorrow’ is changed into ‘in two day’s time’

‘the day before yesterday’ is changed into ‘two days before’

‘these (days)’ is changed into ‘those (days)’

‘this (morning/noon/evening)’ is changed into ‘that (morning/noon/evening)’

‘today’ is changed into ‘that day’

‘tomorrow’ is changed into ‘the next/following day’ or ‘the day after’

‘tonight’ is changed into ‘that night’

‘yesterday’ is changed into ‘the previous day’ or ‘the day before’

 

Besides expressions of time, there are many other expressions that need to be changed if you are changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.

‘come’ is changed into ‘go’

‘bring’ is changed into ‘take’

‘thus’ is changed into ‘so’

‘hence’ is changed into ‘thence’

‘hither’ is changed into ‘thither’

‘here’ is changed into ‘there’

 

NOTE:

When “this” and “these” are used in time expressions, they are changed to “that” and “those” respectively. Otherwise, they change as follows:

 

When used as adjectives, “this” and “these” change to “the”.

Direct: He said to me, “This fruit is overripe”

Indirect: He told me (that) the fruit was overripe.

 

Direct: He said to me, “These bags are heavy”

Indirect: He told me (that) the bags were heavy.  

 

END OF THE SAMPLE

 

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[Series Name: 'English Daily Use' | Book No: 21]

 


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