Book Covers The Following Topics:
What are “Tenses”?
AGREEMENT between SUBJECT and VERB
TWENTY-FOUR Auxiliary Verbs
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
Present Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous/Progressive Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Indefinite Tense
Past Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
could be defined as “any of the form of a verb that may be used to show the
time of the action or an event or state expressed by the verb”.
ARE THREE KINDS OF TENSES:
The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happened in the past
happened before present]
The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happens at this time
happens in present]
The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that will happen in future
will happen after present]
OF THESE THREE KINDS OF SENTENCES HAS FOUR TYPES OF FORMS:
or Simple Form
or Progressive Form
Continuous or Perfect Progressive Form
OF THESE FOUR TYPES OF FORMS HAS FOUR KINDS OF STATEMENTS:
to Show ‘Agreement’
to Show ‘Disagreement’
to Ask ‘Question’
to Ask ‘Question’ and Show ‘Disagreement’
AGREEMENT BETWEEN SUBJECT AND VERB
must be agreement between subject and verb in any sentence.
Subject should be used with Singular
should be used with Plural Verb.
plays. [Subject is Singular. Verb is Singular]
play. [Subject is Plural. Verb is Plural]
Be careful to differentiate between singular and plural verbs. In above
sentences, many learners might think ‘plays’ as a plural verb and ‘play’
as a singular verb. But this is not actually the case. Formation of making
plural verbs is just opposite of making plural nouns. Nouns are generally made
plural by adding ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ in singular noun. On the other hand, if
you add ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ in a verb it becomes singular.
+ s/es = Plural
+ s/es = Singular
are some examples:
– Singular – ball,
bench, book, utensil
– Plural – balls,
benches, books, utensils
– Plural –
fly, run, sing, wander
– Singular –
flies, runs, sings, wanders
are many words which are used as both noun and verb.
the following examples of ‘watch’ and note the difference between singular
and plural nouns and verbs:
– Singular Noun
– Plural Verb
– Plural Noun
– Singular Verb
situation [in the past, present and future]
Our family lives in Seattle.
truth (fact or statement)
London is the capital of England.
Clean water is
fundamental to public health.
Many barrages have
no utility and causes floods.
action [actions that occurs regularly]
She listens to music every day.
meaning’ (timetable, planned event, etc.)
My shop closes at 9pm.
The train arrives
Indians celebrate festival of light in the month of Oct-Nov.
and Instructions [Imperative Sentences]
In imperatives, subject ‘you’ remains hidden]
perpetrators of terrorism.
me from getting the job done.
values of humanity and tolerance.
us about the exact nature of your work.
every step to help him.
in if-clause of present and future real conditional sentences
I go there, I meet him.
If things don't
work out, we won't be panicked.
in news reporting [Use of simple present tense instead of simple past tense is
common in news headlines]
Flight skids on landing at airport.
Jim Corbett on death anniversary.
Thunder storm brings
relief to residents.
AFFIRMATIVE PATTERN –
+ first form of main verb + other words
Verb is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Verb is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
talks. I/We/You/They talk.
seek opportunity to chart out our own
boars sometimes roam the streets of
margin of victory or defeat gives an
impression of a tough contest.
voters value development over other issues.
want civic amenities and employment opportunities.
+ auxiliary verb ‘do/does’ + not + first form of main verb + other words
Verb ‘Does’ is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Verb ‘Do’ is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural
does not talk. I/We/You/They do not talk.
buses do not cater to interior parts of the villages.
does not know what to say.
– [‘Auxiliary Verb + Not’]
(Contracted) Form of ‘do not’ -- don’t
(Contracted) Form of ‘does not’ -- doesn’t
doesn’t talk. I/We/You/They don’t talk. [Contracted form of ‘Auxiliary
Verb + Not’]
anything by way of charity.
to free speech doesn’t include right to insult a person's dignity.
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